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How to Choose Your STELTH Reference Electrode Chemistry

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When choosing which reference electrode chemistry to use, it is helpful to know the composition of the soil or environment your reference electrodes will installed in. Depending on the STELTH® chemistry you use, here are certain chemicals can that can adversely affect your reference electrode’s performance.


Chloride plus bromide can be deadly to any copper-copper sulfate and zinc-zinc sulfate reference electrodes; that’s why BORIN® engineered an ion-trapping technology geared for those chemicals. Thanks to this technology, STELTH copper-copper sulfate and zinc-zinc sulfate reference electrodes can withstand levels of chloride plus bromide up to 1,000 parts per million – making them ideal for most non‑seawater applications.

BORIN STELTH Silver-silver chloride reference electrodes, however, are ideally suited for use with seawater applications, where chloride levels range between 1,000 parts per million and 19,000 parts per million. Above or below these levels can reduce the life of any silver-silver chloride reference electrode by creating a “Liquid Junction Potential” (the movement of chemical compositions across the junction between two electrolyte solutions, which introduces a potential difference between the two solutions, causing your potentials to shift).

BORIN’s newly-developed universal STELTH palladium-palladium chloride reference electrodes are immune to unlimited concentrations of chloride plus bromide and can therefore be utilized in problem zones which have stunted use of traditional chemistries – such as areas with that have unknown chloride counts like brackish water. Don’t have the time, resources, or interest in testing for chloride or bromide levels? Install our worry-free STELTH HCP reference electrode and check it off your worry list.


Not anymore! Our innovative STELTH palladium-palladium chloride reference electrodes are hydrocarbon-proof (HCP), making them optimal for use in locations saturated with those usual reference-cell killers, such as refineries or gas stations contaminated by gasoline, crude oil, brake fluid, transmission fluid, et cetera.


Sulfide levels in excess of 100 parts per million will reduce the life of any copper-copper sulfate, silver-silver chloride and zinc-zinc sulfate reference electrode.